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Pakistan to Build Massive Dams for Abundant Water and Power

China and Pakistan have agreed to finance and build two mega dams in Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. A memorandum of understanding (MoU) for this development was signed by the leaders of the two countries on the sidelines of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) summit in Beijing.

Actual vs Potential Hydropower in South Asia. Source: Economist Mag...


The two dams, called Bunji and Diamer-Bhasha projects, will have the capacity to generate 7,100MW and 4,500MW of electricity respectively. China will provide $27 billion to fund the construction of the two dams, according to media reports.

Pakistan's Hydropower Potential: 

Pakistan has the potential to generate 59,000MW of hydropower, according to studies conducted by the nation's Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). Currently, it's generating only 6,600MW of hydroelectric power, about 11% of the estimated potential. Media reports indicate that China is prepared to finance and build another 40,000MW capacity as part of the development of the Northern Indus Cascade region which begins in Skardu in Gilgit-Baltistan and runs through to Tarbela, the site of Pakistan’s biggest dam, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province.

Diamer-Bhasha Water Storage:

Diamer-Bhasha project is located on Indus River, about 200 miles upstream from the existing Tarbela Dam, 100 miles downstream from the Northern Area capital Gilgit in Gilgit-Baltistan region.  It will generate 4,500 MW of electricity and its reservoir will hold so much water that it could have averted recent devastating floods that affected large parts of Pakistan. It would also provide enough electricity to end  Pakistan's crippling shortages, according to a report in the Guardian newspaper.  The Diamer-Bhasha reservoir would be 50 miles long, holding 8.5 MAF (million acre feet) of water.

Response to Climate Change:

Pakistan has made only a small contribution to climate change through carbon emissions.  And yet, it counts among the dozen or so nations considered most vulnerable to its damaging effects. These include rising temperatures, recurring cycles of floods and droughts and resulting disruption in food production.

One of the ways Pakistan can help reduce carbon emissions is by realizing its full hydroelectric potential by building more dams. The development of the Northern Indus Cascade region to generate 40,000MW of hydropower is a significant part of this effort.

Prerequisite for Economic Development: 

Availability of abundant and cheap electricity has historically preceded rapid economic development in America, Europe and East Asia. Pakistan has an opportunity to meet this prerequisite by generating large amounts of clean renewable hydropower to meet its hunger for energy required for rapid economic growth in all sectors of the economy ranging from agriculture to manufacturing and services.

Summary:

Pakistan is endowed with significant amount of water and power resources that can be harnessed to enable rapid economic growth in all sectors of its economy. It appears that the Chinese investment, as part of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, is now putting this goal within reach. Tens of thousands of megawatts of added electricity and millions of acre feet of additional water will hopefully transform Pakistan's economy and bring prosperity to its people.

Here's a video on the subject:

https://youtu.be/y-VkLn2J6fM



Related Links:

Haq's Musings

Recurring Cycles of Drought and Floods in Pakistan

Pakistan's Response to Climate Change

Renewable Energy for Pakistan

LNG Imports in Pakistan

Growing Water Scarcity in Pakistan

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor

Ownership of Appliances and Vehicles in Pakistan


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Comment by Riaz Haq on May 19, 2017 at 8:04am

Over 92% work completed on 969MW Neelum-Jhelum project
https://dnd.com.pk/over-92-work-completed-on-969mw-neelum-jhelum-pr...

Over 92 percent work has already been completed on the ongoing 969 megawatts Neelum-Jhelum Hydropower Project (NJHP) and its first unit will start supplying power to the national grid system in February 2018.

Official sources Tuesday told the state-run news agency in Islamabad that 2nd unit would start generating in March followed by third and fourth unit in April.

They said excavation of about 68-kilometer long tunnels system of the project has also been completed on May 5.

With this significant development, the water way system of the project would enter in the final phase which is scheduled to be completed in seven months and the tunnels would be ready to divert water from the dam site to Power House, they said.

They said impounding of the reservoir would commence during October this year.

The sources said 100 per cent work on excavation for instalment of turbines has also been completed.

Construction work on the project which started in 2008 remained slow due to certain reasons including financial constraints and redesigning of the project. However, most of the bottlenecks were removed during the present regime, they said.

They said work on the project is being carried out in full swing and upon completion, the NJHP would contribute 5.15 billion units of cheap electricity to the national grid.

The annual benefits accruing from the project have been estimated at Rs 45 billion.

The NJHP is located in the vicinity of Muzaffarabad. It envisages the diversion of Neelum River water through a tunnel out-falling into Jhelum River.

The intake Neelum-Jhelum is at Nauseri 41 km east of Muzaffarabad and has installed capacity of 969 megawatts.

This is an important project for generation of low-cost and the government is exploring all possible avenues to solve the energy crisis.

Around 4,243 kanals of land has been acquired for the project. Out of the total land, Azad Jammu & Kashmir authorities provided 719 kanals while the remaining 3,524 kanals are acquired from private land owners. 

Comment by Riaz Haq on June 13, 2017 at 8:22pm

THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE > PAKISTAN > GILGIT BALTISTAN
Pakistan eyes 2018 start for China-funded Diamer-Bhasha dam

By Reuters Published: June 13, 2017

https://tribune.com.pk/story/1434703/pakistan-eyes-2018-start-china...

Pakistan expects China to fund a long-delayed Indus river mega dam project in Gilgit-Baltistan with work beginning next year, Federal Minister for Planning and Development Ahsan Iqbal said in an interview with Reuters.

Pakistan has been keen for years to build a cascade of mega dams along the Indus flowing down from the Himalayas, but has struggled to raise money from international institutions amid opposition from its nuclear-armed neighbour India.

Those ambitions have been revived by China’s Belt and Road infrastructure plans for Pakistan, a key cog in Beijing’s creation of a modern-day Silk Road network of trade routes connecting Asia with Europe and Africa.

The $12-$14 billion Diamer-Bhasha dam should generate 4,500MW of electricity, and a vast new reservoir would regulate the flow of water to farmland that is vulnerable to increasingly erratic weather patterns.

Iqbal, the Islamabad lead on the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), said a Chinese company from a Beijing-picked shortlist and a local partner would build the dam over a 10-year period, and work should begin in the next financial year, which begins in July.

“This water reservoir is most critical for food security in Pakistan, so is a very high priority project for Pakistan,” Iqbal told Reuters in an interview late on Monday at his ministerial home in Islamabad.

China and Pakistan signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) in December for Beijing to help fund and develop Pakistan’s Indus Basin dams, though no timelines have been released. Pakistan estimates there is 40,000MW of hydro potential.

The Diamer-Bhasha dam and reservoir would displace more than 4,200 families in nearby areas and submerge a large section of the Karakoram Highway to China, Pakistan’s Water and Power Development Authority estimates.

The federal minister also said Pakistani and Chinese engineers were also surveying other projects, including the 7,100MW Bunji hydro power project that would be the first in the cascade that stretches down to the Tarbela Dam near Islamabad.

India’s foreign ministry and ministry for water resources did not respond to requests for comment.

Comment by Riaz Haq on June 13, 2017 at 8:45pm

Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Project

http://dailytimes.com.pk/features/18-Mar-17/neelumjhelum-hydropower...

The Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power project, with a cost of 404.32 billion rupees (US$ 4.03 billion). The project (under construction since 2008) is designed to divert water from the Neelum River to a power station on the Jhelum River. The power station is located in Azad Kashmir, 22 km south of Muzaffarabad and will have an installed capacity of 968 Mega-Watts. Construction on the project began in 2008, a Chinese consortium was awarded the construction contract in July 2007. The first generator is scheduled to be commissioned in July 2017 and the entire project is expected to be completed and start its operations in December 2017.

Design and operations;

The Neelum–Jhelum Dam is a 47 m (154 ft) high and 125 m (410 ft) long gravity dam.
It will withhold a pondage (reservoir) with 8,000,000 m3 (6,486 acre·ft) capacity of which 2,800,000 m3 (2,270 acre·ft) is peak storage. The dam has the capacity to divert up to 280 m3/s (9,888 cu ft/s) of the Neelum River, into a 28.5 km long head-race tunnel, the first 15.1 km of the head-race is two tunnels which later meet into one.
The tunnel passes 380 m (1,247 ft) below the Jhelum River and through its bend. At the terminus of the tunnel, the water reaches the surge chamber which contains a 341 m (1,119 ft) tall surge shaft (to prevent water hammer) and 820 m (2,690 ft) long surge tunnel.
From the surge chamber, the water is split into four different penstocks which feed each of the four 242 MW Francis turbine-generators in the underground power house.
After being used to generate electricity, the water is discharged back into the Jhelum River through a 3.5 km long tail-race tunnel. The drop in elevation between the dam and power station afford an average hydraulic head of 420 m (1,378 ft).

Decision by ICA;

Hague’s Permanent Court of Arbitration; 

In 2010, Pakistan appealed to the Hague's Permanent Court of Arbitration, complaining that the Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant violates the “Indus River Treaty” by increasing the catchment of the Jhelum River and depriving Pakistan of its water rights. In June 2011, the CoA visited both the Kishanganga and Neelum–Jhelum Projects. In August 2011, they ordered India to submit more technical data on the project. India had previously reduced the height of the dam from 98 m (322 ft) to 37 m (121 ft). 

The court asked India in September 2011 to stop constructing any permanent works that would inhibit restoration of the river. With the ruling of International Court of Arbitration, India was not allowed to construct the dam (Reservoir), so, they continued work on the tunnel and power plant. In February 2013 the Hague ruled that India could divert a minimum of water for the Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant. The Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant is an $864 million dam which is part of a run-of-the-river hydroelectric scheme that is designed to divert water from the Kishanganga River to a power plant in the Jhelum River basin. It is located 5 km (3 mi) north of Bandipore in Jammu and Kashmir, and will have an installed capacity of 330 MW. Construction on the project began in 2007 and is expected to get complete in 2018.

Comment by Riaz Haq on July 21, 2017 at 11:05pm

Pakistan’s energy sector improvement includes rehab for 1,000-MW Mangla hydropower project

http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2017/07/pakistan-s-energy-sector...

Pakistan and French Agency for Development (AFD) on July 20 signed €165 million (US$192 million) in soft loan agreements to improve Pakistan’s energy sector, including rehabilitating the 1,000-MW Mangla hydropower project, according to the government of Pakistan.
The agreements also include financing for the power transmission enhancement investment program, Tranche 4, which covers investment to improve electricity distribution efficiency.

The agreements were signed in Islamabad, Pakistan, by Secretary, Economic Affairs Division, Shahid Mahmood; Ambassador of France, Martine Dorance; and Country Director French AFD, Jacky Amprou.

The Mangla hydropower project is a multipurpose facility located on the Jhelum River in Mirpur district of Azad Kashmir. It includes Mangla Dam, which is the seventh largest dam in the world; the country’s largest reservoir, which has a live storage capacity of 7.48 million acre feet; and 10 generating units.
In January, HydroWorld.com reported Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority announced it was moving forward with modernization of the Mangla project to increase the facility’s generating output by 310 MW at an estimated cost of $769 million.
Pakistan said this latest round of financing for the specified projects is a continuation of implementing the country’s National Power Policy 2013.

Pakistan’s National Power Policy 2013 is designed solidify the country’s energy security by increasing electricity generation to 26.8 GW, reduce average electricity rates by more than 30%, achieve zero load shedding, encourage huge public and private investment and import electricity from India, Iran and Central Asian states, according to the government.

In June, AFD co-financed about $100 million of a $400 million program as part of Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) support of Pakistan’s efforts to provide a more reliable and secure energy sector.

According to ADB, its $300 million in assistance to Pakistan is the third such loan under the Sustainable Energy Sector Reform program, bringing ADB’s total financing to $1 billion since 2014.

Last month, the first generating unit at Pakistan's 147-MW Patrind hydroelectric plant began generating power and was connected to the national grid, according to a statement from National Transmission and Despatch Company (NTDC). NTDC operates transmission lines for Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority.

Patrind is located on the Kunhar River and is being developed by a consortium called Star Hydro Power Ltd, which includes the Korea Water Resources Corp. and the Daewoo Engineering & Construction Co.

In May, China and Pakistan signed a $50 billion memorandum of understanding to develop and complete the Indus River Cascade, according to information from the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

The planned cascade includes the 4,500-MW Diamer-Basha project, which is already being constructed and four additional projects being developed: 2,400-MW Patan; 4,000-MW Thakot; 7,100-MW Bunji; and 4,320-MW Dasu.

July 21, 2017 at 11:00 PM

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Comment by Riaz Haq on July 24, 2017 at 8:02am

#Pakistan to quadruple #carbon emissions in 15 years despite feeling pain of #climatechange - The Ecologist #energy

http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/2989149/pakistan_to_...

At the same time, as Pakistan has developed, its carbon emissions have grown. Between 1994 and 2015, the country’s carbon emissions grew 123 percent.

And as the country continues to push forward with economic development, under its Vision 2025 strategy and the CPEC, the prime minister recently reiterated the goal of becoming one of the top 20 economies of the world by 2025.

To achieve this economic growth, there will be a focus on the energy and transport sectors, which already account for a sizeable amount of Pakistan's emissions.

In a recent statement, Pakistan’s minister for climate change stated that given the projected economic growth trajectory, emissions in Pakistan were expected to increase from 405 metric tons carbon dioxide to more than 1,603 metric tons of CO2 in the next 15 years - that means increasing by almost four times.

And although this will still not make Pakistan a big emitter, especially in comparison to its neighbours India and China, it will still have significant environmental impacts, as well as implications for Pakistan’s position as a country that has historically painted itself as a sufferer of the impacts of climate change, and not a contributor.

From an energy perspective, Pakistan’s development plans do include investment in renewables under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor, such as the $ 1.6 billion hydropower project in Karot, the $ 1.2 billion solar power park in Bahawalpur and the $ 260 million 100-megawatt wind farm in Jhimpir.

However, these are dwarfed by the huge investments in coal energy at the same time. As a country with a growing population, which faces an energy crisis, the government is justified in investing in energy, but at what future cost?

Recent reports also suggest that the price per unit of renewable energy in Pakistan is much higher than that of its neighbours, despite being tax free.

There are also a number of other hurdles, such as Pakistan’s rapid urbanization - more than half of the country will be living in urban areas by 2025, according to UN estimates. Karachi, the port city, is already the 7th largest megacity in the world.

Not only do urban areas consume a lot of energy, they are also responsible for producing the most emissions - UNHABITAT put the total emissions from carbon from cities at 60 percent, while putting the global consumption at 78 percent. 

While Pakistan surges forward with its economic development plans, which is not only encouraging but much needed, it has two options: either to continue in its current role as a vulnerable country, and position itself through its policies as such, or to think 20 years into the future, when it will have a larger economy and a larger population, and create a balance in its policies between curbing emissions growth and adaptation needs.

Given the frequency and rate at which climate change is impacting Pakistan, it will always be a vulnerable country. However, experts are optimistic about Pakistan catching up to its neighbours, India and China, in terms of economic development, albeit with external assistance.

This also means that emissions are set to rise, and Pakistan’s current planning and policies are not fully addressing the implications this may have.

Comment by Riaz Haq on July 29, 2017 at 7:59am

signs deal to construct US$698.3 million Sharmai project - HydroWorld

http://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2017/07/pakistan-signs-deal-to-c...

Pakistan is moving forward with hydropower development in its northwestern-most province, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), located in the district of Dir near Afghanistan’s eastern border, according the government of KP.

KP made the announcement on July 23 after Pakistan Chief Minister Pervez Khattak signed an agreement between Pakhtunkhwa Energy Development Organization (PEDO) and a consortium of Sinohydro and Lahore-based Sapphire Electric Co. for construction of the 150-MW Sharmai hydropower project.

PEDO Chief Executive Officer, Akbar Ayub, said the project is expected to be completed in five years at an estimated cost of US$698.3 million. But, he did not provide any information on the project’s start date.

Information from KP indicates the Sharmai hydro project will include a dam and reservoir, and the powerhouse will be located near Darora village and on the confluence of Usherai Khwar Stream and Panjkora River.

Additional technical information for the project includes the following:

  • Net head – 196.6 m; 
  • Annual energy generation – 682 GWh; 
  • Reservoir capacity – 32.2 million cubic meters; 
  • Length of power tunnel – 7.8 km; and 
  • Catchment area – 1,950 km2.

The Sharmai hydro project continues the country’s recent trend towards massive planned infrastructure improvements.

Pakistan and French Agency for Development on July 20 signed US$192 million in soft loan agreements to improve Pakistan’s energy sector, including rehabilitating the 1,000-MW Mangla hydropower project, according to the government of Pakistan.

The Mangla hydropower project is a multipurpose facility located on the Jhelum River in Mirpur district of Azad Kashmir. It includes Mangla Dam, which is the seventh largest dam in the world; the country’s largest reservoir, which has a live storage capacity of 7.48 million acre feet; and 10 generating units.

Earlier this year, China and Pakistan signed a US$50 billion memorandum of understanding on May 13 to develop and complete the Indus River Cascade, according to information from the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

The planned cascade includes the 4,500-MW Diamer-Basha project, which is already being constructed and four additional projects being developed: 2,400-MW Patan; 4,000-MW Thakot; 7,100-MW Bunji; and 4,320-MW Dasu.

In 2016, HydroWorld.com reported KP's hydroelectric power development fund approved the 84-MW Matiltan, 69-MW Daral Khwar, 69-MW Lawi, 40.8-MW Koto and 10.2-MW Jabori plants – all of which are currently in development.  In addition, feasibility studies are being conducted for the 446-MW Kari Mushkar, 410-MW Tor Camp Godobar and 110-MW Gabral Kalam.

Ayub also said seven additional hydropower projects with a total combined installed capacity of 668 MW would be initiated through private sector that would bring $2 billion investment in the province, according to government information. 

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