Pakistan Nuclear Power Generation Soared 66% in 2021

Nuclear power plants in Pakistan generated 15,540 GWH of electricity in 2021, a jump of 66% over 2020. Overall, Pakistan's power plants produced 136,572 GWH of power, an increase of 10.6% over 2020, indicating robust economic recovery amid the COVID19 pandemic. 

Pakistan Electric Power Generation. Source: Arif Habib

Hydroelectric dams contributed 37,689 GWH of electricity or 27.6% of the total power generated, making hydropower the biggest contributor to power generated in the country. It is followed by coal (20%), LNG (19%) and nuclear (11.4%). 

Cost Per Unit of Electricity in Pakistan. Source: Arif Habib

Nuclear offers the lowest cost of fuel for electricity (one rupee per KWH) while furnace oil is the most expensive (Rs. 22.2 per KWH). 

Pakistan Electric Power Generation Fuel MiX. Source: Arif Habib

Construction of 1,100 MW nuclear power reactor K2 unit in Karachi was completed by China National Nuclear Corporation in 2019, according to media reports. Fuel is being loaded in a similar reactor unit K3 which will add another 1,100 MW of nuclear power to the grid in 2022. Chinese Hualong One reactors being installed in Pakistan are based on improved Westinghouse AP1000 design which is far safer than Chernobyl and Fukushima plants.  

The biggest and most important source of low-carbon energy in Pakistan is its hydroelectric power plants, followed by nuclear power. Pakistan ranked third in the world by adding nearly 2,500 MW of hydropower in 2018, according to Hydropower Status Report 2019.  China added the most capacity with the installation of 8,540 megawatts, followed by Brazil (3,866 MW), Pakistan (2,487 MW), Turkey (1,085 MW), Angola (668 MW), Tajikistan (605 MW), Ecuador (556 MW), India (535 MW), Norway (419 MW) and Canada (401 MW).

New Installed Hydroelectric Power Capacity in 2018. Source: Hydrowo...


Hydropower now makes up about 28% of the total installed capacity of 33,836 MW as of February, 2019.   WAPDA reports contributing 25.63 billion units of hydroelectricity to the national grid during the year, “despite the fact that water flows in 2018 remained historically low.” This contribution “greatly helped the country in meeting electricity needs and lowering the electricity tariff for the consumers.”

Pakistan's Current Account Balance vs International Oil Prices. Sou...

Recent history shows that Pakistan's current account deficits vary with international oil prices.  Pakistan's trade deficits balloon with rising imported energy prices. One of the keys to managing external account balances lies in reducing the country's dependence on foreign oil and gas. 

Pakistan Power Generation Fuel Mix. Source: Third Pole

It is true that Pakistan has relied on imported fossil fuels to generate electricity. The cost of these expensive imported fuels like furnace oil mainly used by independent power producers (IPPs) has been and continues to be a major contributor to the "exaggerated external demand driven by its rentier economy" referred to by Atif Mian in a recent tweet. However, Pakistan has recently been adding hydronuclear and indigenous coal-fired power plants to gradually reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. 

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Comment by Riaz Haq on March 5, 2022 at 10:40am

Pakistan power project using China’s Hualong One connected to grid - Global Times

https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202203/1253974.shtml


The (1,100 MW) K-3 unit of the Karachi Nuclear Power Project in Pakistan, the fourth entity to use a China-designed third-generation nuclear reactor, was successfully connected to the grid on Friday, laying solid foundations for commercial operation.

All four of the units adopting China’s Hualong One nuclear reactor are now connected to the grid and are generating electricity, China National Nuclear Corp (CNNC) said in a statement on Friday.

Each Hualong One unit is expected to generate nearly 10 billion kWh of electricity annually after being completed, which can meet the annual electricity demand of more than 4 million households in Pakistan – equivalent to reducing use of standard coal by 3.12 million tons, and reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 8.16 million tons every year. It is also the equivalent of planting more than 70 million trees, CNNC said.

It is of great significance for optimizing Pakistan's energy structure, as well as reaching carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals, CNNC added.

The success in construction and operation of the nuclear reactors in Pakistan will make the Hualong One technology better received in the global market, especially in countries and regions participating in the Belt and Road Initiative, observers said.

The K-2 unit of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant in Pakistan, which also uses Hualong One, officially started commercial operation on May 20 last year.

As China's "calling card" for its nuclear power industry, Hualong One has become one of the most widely recognized third-generation nuclear power reactors in the market.

All of Hualong One’s core components are produced domestically, and it has a design life of 60 years and meets the strictest safety standards in the world, according to a report from the Xinhua News Agency.

In May 2015, construction began on the world's first Hualong One demonstration project in Fuqing. On January 30, the world's first nuclear power unit under Hualong One, unit 5 of CNNC's Fuqing nuclear power plant, entered commercial operation.

With Hualong One online, China is now at the world forefront of third-generation nuclear technology, alongside countries like the US, France and Russia, the Xinhua News Agency reported, citing CNNC Chairman Yu Jianfeng.

The commercial use of Hualong One will also help to meet China’s goal for CO2 emissions to peak before 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality before 2060, Yu added.

Comment by Riaz Haq on March 7, 2022 at 9:11pm

#Karachi 3 (K3) #nuclear #power pant begins supplying #electricity. The 1100 MWe pressurized water reactor was connected to #Pakistan national grid on 4 March. Nuclear #energy currently provides around 8% of Pakistan's energy mix from 5 working reactors https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Karachi-3-begins-supplying-...


The 1100 MWe pressurised water reactor was connected to the grid at 3:33pm on 4 March, China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) announced. It said the milestone "lays a solid foundation for the subsequent commercial operation of the unit."

Construction of Karachi 3, the second of two Hualong One units to be built near Paradise Point in the province of Sindh, began in May 2016. Karachi 2 entered commercial operation in May last year. The units are the first exports of CNNC's Hualong One, which is also promoted on the international market as HPR1000.

"After each unit of Hualong One is completed, it is expected to generate nearly 10 billion kWh of electricity annually, which can meet the annual electricity demand of more than 4 million households in Pakistan," CNNC noted. It said this is equivalent to reducing coal use by 3.12 million tonnes annually and avoiding the emission of 8.16 million tonnes of carbon dioxide every year.

CNNC said the construction of Karachi 2 and 3 has also driven the development of Pakistan's economy and related industries. The local supply of equipment in Pakistan has increased significantly, it said. "During the peak period of the project construction, it has directly provided more than 10,000 jobs for Pakistan, and indirectly created more than 40,000 jobs through the industrial chain."

The Karachi site - also sometimes referred to as KANUPP - was home to Pakistan's first nuclear power reactor, Karachi 1 - a small 100 MWe (90 MWe net) Canadian pressurised heavy water reactor which shut down in 2021 after 50 years of operation.

The first domestic demonstration plants of CNNC's Hualong One, or HPR1000, design are Fuqing 5 and 6, in China's Fujian province. Fuqing 5 entered commercial operation in January 2021; Fuqing 6 started up in December and was connected to the electricity grid on 1 January.

Nuclear energy currently provides around 8% of Pakistan's energy mix from five reactors: four CNNC-supplied CNP-300 pressurised water reactors at Chashma in Punjab, and Karachi 2. CNNC in 2017 signed a cooperation agreement with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission on the construction of a Hualong One as a fifth unit at Chashma.

Comment by Riaz Haq on March 7, 2022 at 9:11pm

#Karachi 3 (K3) #nuclear #power pant begins supplying #electricity. The 1100 MWe pressurized water reactor was connected to #Pakistan national grid on 4 March. Nuclear #energy currently provides around 8% of Pakistan's energy mix from 5 working reactors https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Karachi-3-begins-supplying-...


The 1100 MWe pressurised water reactor was connected to the grid at 3:33pm on 4 March, China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) announced. It said the milestone "lays a solid foundation for the subsequent commercial operation of the unit."

Construction of Karachi 3, the second of two Hualong One units to be built near Paradise Point in the province of Sindh, began in May 2016. Karachi 2 entered commercial operation in May last year. The units are the first exports of CNNC's Hualong One, which is also promoted on the international market as HPR1000.

"After each unit of Hualong One is completed, it is expected to generate nearly 10 billion kWh of electricity annually, which can meet the annual electricity demand of more than 4 million households in Pakistan," CNNC noted. It said this is equivalent to reducing coal use by 3.12 million tonnes annually and avoiding the emission of 8.16 million tonnes of carbon dioxide every year.

CNNC said the construction of Karachi 2 and 3 has also driven the development of Pakistan's economy and related industries. The local supply of equipment in Pakistan has increased significantly, it said. "During the peak period of the project construction, it has directly provided more than 10,000 jobs for Pakistan, and indirectly created more than 40,000 jobs through the industrial chain."

The Karachi site - also sometimes referred to as KANUPP - was home to Pakistan's first nuclear power reactor, Karachi 1 - a small 100 MWe (90 MWe net) Canadian pressurised heavy water reactor which shut down in 2021 after 50 years of operation.

The first domestic demonstration plants of CNNC's Hualong One, or HPR1000, design are Fuqing 5 and 6, in China's Fujian province. Fuqing 5 entered commercial operation in January 2021; Fuqing 6 started up in December and was connected to the electricity grid on 1 January.

Nuclear energy currently provides around 8% of Pakistan's energy mix from five reactors: four CNNC-supplied CNP-300 pressurised water reactors at Chashma in Punjab, and Karachi 2. CNNC in 2017 signed a cooperation agreement with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission on the construction of a Hualong One as a fifth unit at Chashma.

Comment by Riaz Haq on March 16, 2022 at 12:48pm

Fitch Affirms Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority at 'B-'; Outlook Stable


https://www.fitchratings.com/research/international-public-finance/...



WAPDA is established under a special statute. The Authority has close operational and administrative linkage to the government and is mandated to develop water and power resources in Pakistan. The government exercise strong influence over WAPDA's corporate governance and debt, sanctioned by the government, shall be transferred to the government according to the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority Act.

KEY RATING DRIVERS
Status, Ownership and Control: 'Very Strong'


Our 'Very Strong' assessment of 'Status, Ownership and Control' remains unchanged, given the strong statutory support, stable government ownership - which we do not expect to change - and high level of government control. Employees of WAPDA are deemed to be public servants when acting in pursuance of WAPDA activities. The government has strong influence on WAPDA's corporate governance, including budget, accounts, financing activity and new power station investment plans, because the Authority is mandated to execute the government's responsibility of utilising Pakistan's water and power resources.

Support Track Record: 'Very Strong'


The build-up of circular debt in the energy sector exposes WAPDA to external funding. The government aims to mitigate the circular debt issue by providing financial support; it had guaranteed 22% of WAPDA's interest-bearing debt as of June 2021 and 56% of the debt comprises of government loans. The government will be liable for loans passed by the Authority with the sanction of the government under the WAPDA Act. Supportive policies, such as corporate tax exemptions, land acquisitions and a tariff mechanism, also enhance WAPDA's operational stability.

Socio-Political Implications of Default: 'Strong'


Pakistan's policies aim to boost the hydropower generation mix and reduce reliance on fossils. WAPDA's hydropower generation accounted for 27% of the generation mix in 2021, while other renewable energy only accounted for 3%. The government aims for hydro power to contribute over 40% of Pakistan's energy demand by 2030, implying that the development of hydropower generation is of significant strategic importance to the country. We believe WAPDA's installed capacity would be difficult to substitute and that any transition process would lead to severe service disruption.

Financial Implications of Default: 'Very Strong'


We deem WAPDA as a proxy financing vehicle for the government in the energy sector. The Authority still relies on the government to fund its investments, although it is expanding its borrowing capacity, including via recent bond issues. We believe the government's borrowing ability would be significantly impaired if WAPDA come under financial stress due to the high level of funding it receives from international development finance institutions and its debt mix - 78% of interest-bearing debt comprised loans or was guaranteed by the government.

Derivation Summary

WAPDA's ratings reflect our assessment of government linkage and support incentive and results in a weighted score of 50, based on our Government-Related Entities Rating Criteria. We adopt a top-down approach and equalise WAPDA's rating with those of Pakistan (B-/Stable), regardless of WAPDA's Standalone Credit Profile.

Comment by Riaz Haq on March 20, 2022 at 11:59am

Arif Habib Limited
@ArifHabibLtd
Cost of Power Generation down by 26.9% MoM during Feb’22

Feb’22: PKR 8.94/KWh, +89.6% YoY | -26.9% MoM
8MFY22: PKR 7.79/KWh, +77.7% YoY

https://twitter.com/ArifHabibLtd/status/1505560053415219206?s=20&am...

Comment by Riaz Haq on March 30, 2022 at 8:27pm

Nuclear power generation
By Engr. Hussain Ahmad Siddiqui Mon, 03, 22
This month is marked with Pakistan achieving milestone of 3,635-MWe cumulative nuclear power generation capacity as the third nuclear power plant at Karachi is connected to the national grid for testing, and will shortly commence commercial operations.

https://www.thenews.com.pk/magazine/money-matters/941162-nuclear-po...

his month is marked with Pakistan achieving milestone of 3,635-MWe cumulative nuclear power generation capacity as the third nuclear power plant at Karachi is connected to the national grid for testing, and will shortly commence commercial operations.

Commonly known as Kanupp-3 or K-3, it is of 1,145-MWe generation installed capacity and 1,100-MWe net capacity, which had attained criticality last month, and was undergoing safety tests and procedures. Generation cost is about Rs 9.59 per KWh (levelised). The foreign exchange portion of the project, which is about 80 percent of total cost, has been financed through a loan from the China’ state-owned The Export-Import Bank of China.

With the addition of K-3 nuclear power plant, currently there are total seven nuclear power plants installed in the country, out of which six, of cumulative installed capacity of 3,635-MWe, are in operation. The first–ever nuclear power plant constructed in the country, Kanupp-1 (K-1), has been permanently shut down. With the commencement of commercial operations of K-3, the share of nuclear energy in overall generation mix from all resources at national level has significantly increased, to over 9.1 percent. This share, which was 1.1 percent in 1990, has gradually and steadily increased in later years to 7.1 percent in 2020, before achieving the present level.

These nuclear power plants, established with technical and economic support of China, are owned and operated by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), and regulated by the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) under the safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These facilities are located only at two sites — Chashma (District Mianwali) and Karachi. There are four nuclear power plants, namely Chasnupp-1 (C-1) of 325-MWe installed capacity, and plants C-2, C-3 and C-4, each of 340-MWe capacity.

These four plants at Chashma were commissioned in the years 2000, 2011, 2016 and 2017, respectively, and their corresponding operating licenses are valid until December 2030, 2026, 2026 and 2027. Pakistan has an impeccable record of safety and security in operating these nuclear power plants, as it follows best practices and standards set by the IAEA. Pakistan is currently ranked 17th out of 25 countries on Nuclear Materials Safety Index in terms of safety, and security and is placed above India.

Karachi Coastal Power Complex consists of two units of 1,145-MWe each installed capacity, known as K-2 and K-3 for which China has provided $6.5 billion loan on soft terms. The earlier unit K-2 was connected to the system of the National Transmission and Despatch Co (NTDC) in May 2021. These are third-generation nuclear power plants developed and tested by the Chinese as “Advanced China Pressurized ACP-1000”. Electricity transmission infrastructure for evacuation of power from these plants include additional 550kv and 220kv transmission lines of 16-km that have recently been completed by the NTDC at a cost of Rs5.6 billion.

The K-1nuclear power plant of 137-MWe capacity was constructed near Karachi in 1971, and connected to the national grid in October 1972. It was designed to operate for 30-years’operation. On end of its service life in 2002, the major balancing, modernization & rehabilitation (BMR) and safety upgrades of the facility were carried out by the PAEC, and it operated safely since 2003 till recently at de-rated capacity of around 98-MWe. After 50-years’ record successful operation the plant has been shut-down in August 2021 for dismantling and decommissioning.

Comment by Riaz Haq on April 18, 2022 at 3:50pm

Soaring prices of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and coal on the international markets have left Pakistan, the world’s fifth-most populous nation, with having to cut electricity supply to households and industry as the country in a deep political and economic crisis cannot afford to buy more of the expensive fossil fuels.

https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/High-Energy-Pric...

Pakistan—whose population is the fifth largest in the world after China, India, the United States, and Indonesia—started to feel the pinch of high energy prices as early as last autumn, when it was struggling to procure imported LNG for its power plants. Pakistan’s predicament came amid a global natural gas crunch and surging prices for the fuel in Europe and Asia, months before prices shot up again as a consequence of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

As global energy prices remain elevated and highly volatile with the Russian war in Ukraine, Pakistan—dependent on imports with relatively poor state finances—is especially hard hit.

The energy crisis, and the political crisis with last week’s ousting of Imran Khan as prime minister of the country, which has nuclear weapons, have combined to throw the Pakistani state budget and finances into disarray.

Now Pakistan cannot afford to buy more LNG and coal, on which its power plants rely to generate electricity, Bloomberg reported on Monday.

In the middle of last week, on April 13, a total of 7,140 megawatts (MW) capacity plants were shut either due to fuel shortage or technical faults, Miftah Ismail tweeted. Ismail has been picked to serve as a finance minister by new Prime Minister-designate Shehbaz Sharif.

According to Bilal Kayani, Assistant Secretary General at the Pakistani party PMLN, foreign exchange reserves at the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) amounted to just $10.8 billion on 8 April, a day before Imran Khan was ousted through the vote of no confidence. That’s less than 2 months of import cover. Reserves declined rapidly by $5.4 billion in just 5 weeks, Kayani said.

Comment by Riaz Haq on April 27, 2022 at 6:51am

Pakistan: Experts stress shifting to coal for energy needs

https://tribune.com.pk/story/2353970/experts-stress-shifting-to-coa...


Power sector experts have emphasised upon Pakistan to push harder for utilisation of lignite - an economical alternative to imported furnace oil and RLNG (re-gasified liquefied natural gas) - as it is crucial for the country’s ambition to achieve higher economic growth through industrialisation.

Besides industrialisation, provision of electricity to domestic consumers by using local coal reserves could serve the purpose of generating cheap electricity and curbing the ever increasing circular debt in the power sector, they added. They were of the view that the incumbent coalition government, led by Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif, inherited fiscally unsustainable circular debt of nearly Rs2.5 trillion and lofty subsidies on energy prices, as well as re-surging blackouts despite surplus generation capacity. Electricity at current price is not affordable for businesses and residential consumers.

According to the government, the electricity generation cost rose by over 66% in March compared to a year ago because of the surging global energy prices.

The generation cost has surged 66.2% to Rs9.22 kWh in March this year from Rs5.55 kWh a year ago owing to spike in imported fossil fuel prices.

“Pakistan should now focus on local coal reserves for power generation as an alternate to imported fuel and coal given that its cost is much cheaper than the imported coal,” emphasised Sino-Sindh Resources Deputy CEO Chaudhary Abdul Qayyum.

Talking to The Express Tribune, Qayyum said that the local coal prices were not sensitive to international price fluctuations.

“Local coal at Thar is available for as low as $40 per ton and with rise in mine scaling, its prices will fall further to $30 a ton,” he pointed out.

“The best thing is that the government has to pay the price in local currency.”

Currently, around 16 million tons of coal is being imported by Pakistan to operate four power plants, Qayyum said adding that if these plants had been running on local coal, massive amounts of foreign exchange could have been saved by the country besides generation of cheap electricity.

He underlined that the recent commodity cycle had witnessed imported coal prices going up to $420-470 a ton from $100-120 a ton, making imported coal even more expensive than residual fuel oil (RFO) for power production.

Comment by Riaz Haq on April 27, 2022 at 10:48am

Global Coal Production Capacity Rose in 2021

https://earth.org/global-coal-production-capacity-rose-in-2021/


Natural gas shortage and China’s energy crisis have driven global coal plant production capacity to surge last year, undercutting global net zero efforts.



The global capacity of coal power plants rose by nearly 1% in 2021 as the world recovered from the Covid-19 pandemic and increased attention on energy security, according to a report by a US environmental group Global Energy Monitor (GEM).

The research found that global coal plant capacity grew 18.2 gigawatts to about 2,100 GW or about 0.87% last year.

“It’s up by a small number,” said Flora Champenois, a GEM research analyst. “But it comes at a time when the world needs a dramatic fall in capacity, not any rise.”

The small spike can be attributed to a number of new coal plants that opened in China, which just about offset all the coal plant closures around the world in a global effort to cut down greenhouse gas emissions and limit global warming.

China, the world’s top emitter, has pledged to carbon peak by 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. But the country has recently turned back to coal, the dirtiest fossil fuel, due to its domestic energy crisis. To ensure power and heating supply for its residents, China has been increasing coal production capacity and built more than triple the amount of new coal power capacity as the rest of the world combined.

At the same time, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine put the issue of energy security at the centre of the global stage, where countries including Germany have been reconsidering turning to coal again – instead of relying on nuclear power like the UK – to compensate for Russia’s natural gas.

Global demand for coal has been on the rise. In 2021, the world generated more electricity from coal than ever before, increasing 9% from the previous year, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). Total coal consumption, which covers electricity generation and industrial uses, is also expected to grow by another 2% in 2022. The IEA projects the high levels will likely last through to at least 2024, which is at least 3 billion tons higher than a scenario reaching net zero by 2050.

The latest IPCC climate report warns that global greenhouse gas emissions must peak by 2025 and be to halved by the end of the decade for a chance to limit global warming to 1.5C.

Despite rising inflation, coal will also likely remain to be one of the relatively cheapest fuels available, according to Bloomberg. However, there has been some positive trends. The report highlighted how capacity of global coal plants being built in 2021 decreased by 13%, dropping from 525 GW in 2020 to 457 GW.

Comment by Riaz Haq on May 7, 2022 at 12:56pm

Karot Hydropower connects unit one to national grid. It is a 720 MW plant constructed on river Jhelum, #Pakistan , in collaboration with one of the largest state-owned #Chinese power companies, #China Three Gorges Corporation. #CPEC Global Village Space

https://www.globalvillagespace.com/karot-hydropower-connects-unit-o...


Pakistan’s first Hydel power generation project – Karot Hydropower – under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) connected unit one to the national grid on 30 April, kick-starting the operations at full capacity, reported Developing Pakistan, a Pakistan based digital media platform. By connecting unit one of the Karot Hydropower, the project pumps 180 MW of electricity into the national grid. Karot Hydropower Project is a 720 MW constructed on river Jhelum, Pakistan, in collaboration with one of the largest state-owned Chinese power companies, the China Three Gorges Corporation, more commonly known as the CTG. The rest of the three units will be connected to the national grid in the upcoming months.

The project’s financial close was achieved in March 2017, and construction work began the same year. The mechanical, electrical, and other technical works of the project were completed around February 2022, and internal testing began in the same month. Work pertaining to transmitting power to the national grid was mostly completed by January however was not completed till April 30. The project is the first of three hydropower projects under China Pakistan Economic Corridor, and the estimated cost to get the plant operational stands at around $1.42 billion. According to the Managing Director of the Private Power and Infrastructure Board, the other two include “the 870MW Sukhi Kenari HPP and 1,124MW Kohala HPP.” Work on Sukhi Kerani is underway, whereas the construction of the Kohala Hydropower Project is yet to be initiated. The Kohala HPP is also being constructed on the Jhelum river, and a tripartite agreement was signed for its construction in June 2020; however, due to tax issues, the work on the construction site of the said river has still not begun.

It is pertinent to mention that according to the National Electric Power Regulator Authority state industry report 2021, Hydel sources of electricity generation account for 27.02 percent of the country’s electricity, significantly more than any other source except for thermal.

Separately, to address the energy demands of the country, Pakistani authorities have also engaged the World Bank to facilitate the set up of a 300 MW floating solar project at the Tarbela – Ghazi Barotha complex. The project’s projected cost is proposed to be around $346.5 million. Under the project, a 150 MW floating solar subproject will be deployed in the Ghazi Barrage headpond and another floating project of similar capacity at the Forebay of the existing Ghazi Barotha Hydropower plant. The project would greatly enhance the electricity supply and help meet the rising demand for electricity in a climate-smart manner.

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