Multidimensional Poverty: India is Home to 75% of World's Population Deprived of Basic Living Standards

Over 75% of the world's poor deprived of basic living standards (nutrition, cooking fuel, sanitation and housing) live in India compared to 4.6% in Bangladesh and 4.1% in Pakistan, according to a recently released OPHI/UNDP report on multidimensional poverty.  Here's what the report says: "More than 45.5 million poor people are deprived in only these four indicators (nutrition, cooking fuel, sanitation and housing). Of those people, 34.4 million live in India, 2.1 million in Bangladesh and 1.9 million in Pakistan—making this a predominantly South Asian profile". 

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2022. Source: OPHI/UNDP
Income Poverty in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Source: Our World...

The UNDP poverty report shows that the income poverty (people living on $1.90 or less per day) in Pakistan is 3.6% while it is 22.5% in India and 14.3% in Bangladesh. In terms of the population vulnerable to multidimensional poverty, Pakistan (12.9%) does better than Bangladesh (18.2%) and India (18.7%)  However, Pakistan fares worse than India and Bangladesh in multiple dimensions of poverty. The headline multidimensional poverty (MPI) figure for Pakistan (0.198) is worse than for Bangladesh (0.104) and India (0.069). This is primarily due to the education and health deficits in Pakistan. Adults with fewer than 6 years of schooling are considered multidimensionally poor by OPHI/UNDP.  Income poverty is not included in the MPI calculations. The data used by OHP/UNDP for MPI calculation is from years 2017/18 for Pakistan and from years 2019/2021 for India. 

Multidimensional Poverty in South Asia. Source: UNDP

The Indian government's reported multidimensional poverty rate of 25.01% is much higher than the OPHI/UNDP estimate of 16.4%. NITI Ayog report released in November 2021 says: "India’s national MPI identifies 25.01 percent of the population as multidimensionally poor".

Multidimensional Poverty in India. Source: NITI Ayog via IIP

Earlier this year,  Global Hunger Index 2022 reported that  India ranks 107th for hunger among 121 nations. The nation fares worse than all of its South Asian neighbors except for war-torn Afghanistan ranked 109, according to the the report. Sri Lanka ranks 64, Nepal 81, Bangladesh 84 and Pakistan 99. India and Pakistan have levels of hunger that are considered serious. Both have slipped on the hunger charts from 2021 when India was ranked 101 and Pakistan 92.  Seventeen countries, including Bosnia, China, Kuwait, Turkey and UAE, are collectively ranked between 1 and 17 for having a score of less than five.

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Comment by Riaz Haq on October 23, 2022 at 6:45pm

Every second ST, every third Dalit & Muslim in India poor, not just financially: UN report
At around 27% of the country's population, India has the largest number of people living in multidimensional poverty in the world, says the report.

https://theprint.in/india/every-second-st-every-third-dalit-muslim-...

In a damning reflection of how India’s most vulnerable sections continue to remain at the bottom of the pyramid, fresh data shows that the so-called ‘lower’ castes, tribals, Muslims, and children aged below 10 are among the poorest in the country.

Comment by Riaz Haq on October 24, 2022 at 9:06pm

In 2021, Pakistan was ranked 153rd in the Global Gender Gap Index. In 2020, it had ranked 154th on the Human Development Index, with 38 percent of its population living with multidimensional poverty.

https://www.thenews.com.pk/tns/detail/955905-pakistans-progress-on-...


So, after one complete year, Pakistan’s ranking has improved just one notch. Keeping the lofty target in mind this is just enough. Population growth is one of the biggest challenges Pakistan is facing. It is hindering the development process and it will remain an issue for the projected future.

----

The government of Pakistan is working on the SDGs through its Ministry of Planning, Development and Special Initiatives.

There are several issues. According to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Index ranking 2021, Pakistan ranked 129th out of 165 countries, with an overall score of 57.7 percent, mainly for its progress on one of the 17 goals – climate action.

The country saw moderate improvements in the goals for poverty, health and well-being, water and sanitation, decent work, peace and justice and partnership, but it has made no progress on zero hunger, quality education, gender equality, clean energy, innovation, sustainable cities and communities. It went backwards on life below water.

According to Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), the main contributors to multi dimensional poverty in Pakistan are years of schooling (29.7 percent), followed by access to health facilities (19.8 percent) and child school attendance (10.5 percent). Deprivations in education are the largest contributor to the MPI (42.8 percent), followed by living standards (31.5 percent) and health (25.7 percent).

The 18th Amendment to the Constitution promised free and compulsory education to all 5–16-year-olds as a fundamental right according to Article 25A. Its implementation has been slow.

With 2.2 million out-of-school children, how can the target be achieved in the absence of appropriate budgetary allocations and weak monitoring methods?

Several studies have highlighted the hazardous impact of political instability on direct foreign investment, which pushes the country further into poverty and away from achieving the SDGs.
The Covid-19 pandemic directly impacted 42m children from the pre-primary and primary-to-higher secondary and degree college levels. Mobility constraints, non-availability of the internet, lack of access to tele-schooling facilities had an adverse impact on the most vulnerable groups.

SDG 3: Good health and well-being

Even before Covid-19, Pakistan had a weak healthcare system with insufficient facilities to meet the needs of its growing population. There is on average one hospital bed available for over 1,680 people.

Some of the dimensions of the health sector are closely related to education and awareness. The relatively high levels of maternal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, low nutritional status and disparities in immunisation rates are related to the social status and education of women. These factors need to be kept in mind while making policies and implementation plans.

Pakistan has a booming private health sector. Due to high levels of poverty and illiteracy, frequent natural disasters and a tense security situation, people have to face the challenges of accessing good quality and equitable health services.

Another big issue is the cost of good medical facilities. Private facilities are often too expensive for the common man to avail quality healthcare facilities.

The governments have been initiating healthcare initiatives. These include health cards, a national health insurance programme, but the quality and accessibility of the facilities is far from uniform.

Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation

Safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030 requires investment in adequate infrastructure.

Comment by Riaz Haq on October 26, 2022 at 8:33am

Of the 10 most #polluted cities in #Asia, 8 are in #India. #Guragaon, #Lucknow, Anandpur, Begusarai, #Bhopal, Dewas, Khadakpada, Kalyan, Darshan Nagar & Chhapra, #China's Xiaoshishang Port in Luzhou and Bayankhoshuu in #Mangolia’s Ulaanbaata. #pollution https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/most-polluted-cities-in-asia-...

As the winter season is around the corner, as many as eight Indian cities on Sunday made it to the list of top 10 polluted cities in Asia. As per the data released by the World Air Quality Index, eight Indian cities recorded the worst air quality in Asia, while just one city - Rajamahendravaram in Andhra Pradesh - managed to feature in the list of top 10 cities with the best air quality.

Gurugram made it to the top of the list with an air quality index (AQI) of 679 on Sunday morning, followed by Dharuhera near Rewari in Haryana with an AQI of 543 and Muzaffarpur in Bihar with an AQI of 316.

According to data available on www.aqicn.org, Delhi's AQI was recorded at 194 on Sunday.

Other cities that come on the list are Talkator, Lucknow (AQI 298), DRCC Anandpur, Begusarai (AQI 269), Bhopal Chauraha, Dewas (AQI 266), Khadakpada, Kalyan (AQI 256), Darshan Nagar and Chhapra (AQI 239).

Apart from Indian cities, China's Xiaoshishang Port in Luzhou (AQI 262) is also in the list of stations with worse air quality. Bayankhoshuu in Mangolia’s Ulaanbaata also featured in the list.

Comment by Riaz Haq on October 27, 2022 at 6:45am

#Pakistan( #48) ranks ahead of #India (#60) among 121 countries in Gallup Survey of "Secure Countries". #Singapore tops, #Afghanistan last. Overall, countries in East #Asia, the #MiddleEast and North #Africa showed a positive trend. #safety #LawAndOrder https://indianexpress.com/article/world/worlds-most-secure-countrie...

https://news.gallup.com/poll/403937/global-progress-safety-confiden...

India ranked 60th of 121 countries in the Gallup Law and Order Index for 2021, scoring 80 on an index that ranges from 1 to 100, with a higher score indicating that more people in a country feel secure. Singapore ranked the highest with a score of 96, while Afghanistan was at the bottom of the list with 51.

Tajikistan, Norway, Switzerland and Indonesia were ranked in the top five after Singapore, while Venezuela in South America and Sierra Leone, Congo, and Gabon in Africa were among the bottom five.

Pakistan ranked 48th in the list, recording a score of 82, on par with Laos, Serbia, Iran and New Zealand.

The United States, Italy, and Germany all scored 83, while Australia scored 84, and Canada 87.

The polls found that as many as seven in 10 people globally feel safe walking alone at night where they live and have confidence in their local police. The report said that overall, the security metrics have remained stable between 2020 and 2021.

The annual Gallup survey interviewed around 1,27,000 persons over 15 years of age, in more than 122 countries and areas in 2021 and early 2022. In each country, around 1,000 respondents participated via telephone or face-to-face. Without explaining the methodology, Gallup said the index is a composite score based on the responses to four questions to measure their sense of security and faith in law enforcement.

The questions are as follows: 1) In the city or area where you live, do you have confidence in the local police force?; 2) Do you feel safe walking alone at night in the city or area where you live?; 3) Within the last 12 months, have you had money or property stolen from you or another household member?; 4) Within the past 12 months, have you been assaulted or mugged?

As per the report, 71% of the respondents said they felt safe walking alone at night where they lived and 70% said they had confidence in their local police. Additionally, 11% said they had property stolen from them or other household members in the past year, and 6% said they had been assaulted or mugged.

Overall, countries in East Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, the Commonwealth of Independent States, Latin America and the Caribbean showed a positive trend in their answers.

Countries like the United States, Canada and Western Europe, which have seen several protests against the police and government, unsurprisingly showed a downward trend in their responses to queries on faith in local police. In 2020, for instance, prior to the George Floyd killing, 82% of respondents in the US said they trusted the police. In 2021, this number fell to 74%.

Comment by Riaz Haq on October 27, 2022 at 5:42pm

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) on Thursday said the strong recovery in South Asia is expected to take a breather with India's economy expanding at 6.8% in FY23, revised down by 1.4 percentage points since the April 2022 World Economic Outlook, due to a weaker-than-expected recovery in the second quarter and subdued external demand.

https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/indicators/imf-on...

A further slowdown of India's growth to 6.1% is expected in FY24 as external demand and a tightening in monetary and financial conditions weigh
on growth, the IMF said in its Regional Economic Outlook.

Noting that there have been "significant" portfolio outflows from Asia so far this year, it said at a regional level the scale of the outflows from Asian emerging markets is comparable to previous episodes such as the 2013 taper tantrum and the 2020 onset of the Covid-19 pandemic.

While strong outflow pressures have been focused on a handful of economies such as India, it said that recent data point to outflows having stabilised and partially reversed. "In the countries facing the most volatility in net portfolio flows, these seem predominantly driven by equity instead of debt flows (India, Thailand). These flows and the differentiation of equity prices have responded to changes in growth expectations," the IMF said.

As per the report, several Asian emerging market and developing economies have seen a decumulation of their international reserves-between 3-10% of their holdings in the first half of 2022 in India, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand-especially during periods of intense external financial shocks.

Most economies in Asia and Pacific, including Australia and India, are consolidating fiscal policy alongside monetary policy following substantial support during the pandemic, according to the outlook.

On the Russia-Ukraine war, it said the rise in crude oil, natural gas, coal and agricultural commodity prices in the first half of 2022 has been a negative terms-of-trade shock for most of the region and placed strain on the external accounts of large net importers in India.

The IMF also said India would need to spend 6.2% of gross domestic product each year to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals in 2030, and these resource requirements are compounded by less ess favourable debt dynamics.

Crypto currency
On crypto currency, the IMF said policy response should include investments to modernize digital payment systems-including cross-border integration-and the eventual issuance of central bank digital currencies.

India introduced a 30% tax on income derived from crypto trading and is currently developing a regulatory framework like many countries in the region.

"An important aspect of the policy response should include investments to modernize digital payment systems-including cross-border integration-and the eventual issuance of central bank digital currencies, which could offer consumers many of the benefits of crypto without the risks," it said.

The pandemic has accelerated digitalization around the world, including in many Asian emerging markets and developing economies, and e-commerce revenues have increased, with particularly rapid expansion in some emerging markets such as India and Indonesia.

Comment by Riaz Haq on October 27, 2022 at 9:15pm

India scored 80 points on the table, below its neighbours Pakistan and Sri Lanka with a marginal difference but was placed above the United Kingdom and Bangladesh.

https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/these-are-5-most-and-leas...

Gallup's Law and Order Index 2022 - a report by global analytics firm Gallup -- has positioned Taliban-captured Afghanistan as the least secure country for the third year. Region-wise, the report has declared East Asia as the most secure while Southeast Asia came second to it. Gallup’s survey which takes into consideration four questions to gauge “people’s sense of personal security and their personal experiences with crime and law enforcement” said it has interviewed about 127,000 people in over 120 countries to compile the list.


The five most secure countries on Gallup’s index

Singapore 96
Tajikistan 95
Norway 93
Switzerland 92
Indonesia 92
The five least secure countries on Gallup's index

Sierra Leone 59
DR Congo 58
Venezuela 55
Gabon 54
Afghanistan 51

India scored 80 points on the table, below its neighbours Pakistan and Sri Lanka with a marginal difference in points but was placed above the United Kingdom and Bangladesh. As per the reports, Southeast Asia was home to the largest gains in confidence - due to contributions from Singapore and Indonesia’s improved police services.

Afghanistan which maintained the lowest score in the last two surveys conducted in 2018 and 2019 too (survey was not conducted in 2020 due to pandemic) - improved its score relatively due to a drop in violence following the end of the Taliban’s insurgency as it had completed the takeover from US troops. The report also said that North America and Western Europe have lost ground mainly due to people’s falling confidence in the police, especially after the high-profile police shootings including the killing of George Floyd which sparked a racial injustice movement.

https://news.gallup.com/poll/403937/global-progress-safety-confiden...

Comment by Riaz Haq on October 28, 2022 at 7:57am

Young girls being sold in #India to repay #debt, says #humanrights body. #Indians living in many rural areas in India often have to borrow money from fellow villagers when a family member falls seriously ill and needs medical treatment. #poverty #slavery https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/oct/28/young-girls-sold-indi...

Young girls in the northern Indian state of Rajasthan are being sold as “repayment” for loans their parents cannot afford, the national body that protects human rights has said.

The National Human Rights Commission has issued a notice to the state government demanding a police inquiry and answers within a month to what it called an “abominable” practice.

People living in many rural areas in India often have to borrow money from fellow villagers when a family member falls seriously ill and needs medical treatment.

Local media reports say that in half a dozen districts around Bhilwara, if a family cannot repay a loan, the aggrieved creditor has complained to the “caste panchayats” or caste councils.

By way of “settlement”, the councils have ordered the family to hand over their daughter – sometimes more than one depending on the size of the loan – so that the creditor can sell her to a trafficker to recoup his money.

In its notice, the commission said that if the family refuses to sell their daughter, “their mothers are subjected to rape on the diktats of caste panchayats for the settlement of disputes”.

Among the cases highlighted by the commission is that of a man who borrowed 1.5m rupees (£15,800) from a neighbour who was forced by the panchayat to sell his sister and 12-year-old daughter to settle the debt.

In another, a man who borrowed 600,000 rupees (£6,300) when his wife fell ill and needed hospital treatment was unable to repay it. The panchayat compelled him to hand over his young daughter to the creditor, who later sold her to a trafficker in Agra. From there, “she was sold three times and became pregnant four times”, the commission said.

The commission has sent an official to Rajasthan to investigate the cases. The Bhilwara district collector, Ashish Modi, said the crimes were the first of their kind. “They are total illegal. The police are investigating and we will make sure the victims get justice and the guilty are punished,” Modi said.

Panchayats are often a profoundly regressive force in rural India, acting as kangaroo courts. They have ordered so-called honour killings of couples who have defied tradition by marrying into a different caste or faith or ordered brutal punishments for couples suspected of adultery.

Comment by Riaz Haq on October 29, 2022 at 8:07am

Gallup Law and Order Survey 2021 shows that Pakistan (score 82) is safer than Bangladesh (79) and India (80) and Sri Lanka (80). Gallup’s survey is based on responses to four questions to measure “people’s sense of personal security and their personal experiences with crime and law enforcement”. The questions are as follows: 1) In the city or area where you live, do you have confidence in the local police force?; 2) Do you feel safe walking alone at night in the city or area where you live?; 3) Within the last 12 months, have you had money or property stolen from you or another household member?; 4) Within the past 12 months, have you been assaulted or mugged? Gallup interviewed 127,000 people in 120 countries to compile the report.

In terms of safety in South Asia region, Islamabad (50) ranks the highest followed by Lahore (103), Colombo (110), Chennai (112), Hyderabad (130), Mumbai (140), Karachi (188), Bangalore (200), New Delhi (216) and Dhaka (232).

On quality of life in South Asia, Islamabad ranks 144 followed by Bangalore 167, Hyderabad 195, Chennai 218, Lahore 219, Karachi 237, New Delhi 239, Mumbai 246, Colombo 251 and Dhaka 252.


https://www.riazhaq.com/2022/10/law-and-order-index-2022-pakistan-i...

Comment by Riaz Haq on November 12, 2022 at 7:19pm

World Bank Data Pakistan


https://data.worldbank.org/?locations=XP-XD-XM-PK

Data for Middle income, High income, Low income, Pakistan
Overview
By Theme
By SDG Goal
Topic
Social
Indicator
Most recent value
Trend
Poverty headcount ratio at $2.15 a day (2017 PPP) (% of population)
High income
0.6
Low income
43.9
Pakistan
4.9
(2019)

Low income (2009)
49
Life expectancy at birth, total (years)
Middle income
72
High income
80
Low income
64
Pakistan
67
(2020)

Population, total
Middle income
5.9
High income
1.2
Low income
701,926,973
Pakistan
225,199,929
(2021)

Population growth (annual %)
Middle income
0.9
High income
0.1
Low income
2.7
Pakistan
1.9
(2021)

Net migration
Middle income
-8,770,314
High income
15,844,525
Low income
-3,817,274
Pakistan
-1,166,895
(2017)

Human Capital Index (HCI) (scale 0-1)
Pakistan
0.4
(2020)

Economic
Indicator
Most recent value
Trend
GDP (current US$)
current US$
Middle income
35,785.94
High income
59,445.42
Low income
526.28
Pakistan
346.34
(2021 billion)

Pakistan (2021)
346.34 Billion
GDP per capita (current US$)
current US$
Middle income
6,102.0
High income
47,886.8
Low income
749.8
Pakistan
1,537.9
(2021)

High income (2020)
43,282.4
GDP growth (annual %)
Middle income
7.0
High income
5.1
Low income
3.0
Pakistan
6.0
(2021)

Middle income (2002)
4.8
Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) (modeled ILO estimate)
Middle income
6.3
High income
5.7
Low income
6.1
Pakistan
4.4
(2021)

High income (2000)
6.5
Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)
Middle income
4.1
High income
2.5
Low income
7.9
Pakistan
9.5
(2021)

Personal remittances, received (% of GDP)
Middle income
1.6
High income
0.3
Low income
2.7
Pakistan
8.7
(2020)

Comment by Riaz Haq on November 12, 2022 at 7:21pm

World Bank Data Pakistan


https://data.worldbank.org/?locations=XP-XD-XM-PK

Data for Middle income, High income, Low income, Pakistan
Overview
By Theme
By SDG Goal
Topic
Social
Indicator
Most recent value
Trend
Poverty headcount ratio at $2.15 a day (2017 PPP) (% of population)
High income
0.6
Low income
43.9
Pakistan
4.9
(2019)

Low income (2009)
49
Life expectancy at birth, total (years)
Middle income
72
High income
80
Low income
64
Pakistan
67
(2020)

Population, total
Middle income
5.9
High income
1.2
Low income
701,926,973
Pakistan
225,199,929
(2021)

Population growth (annual %)
Middle income
0.9
High income
0.1
Low income
2.7
Pakistan
1.9
(2021)

Net migration
Middle income
-8,770,314
High income
15,844,525
Low income
-3,817,274
Pakistan
-1,166,895
(2017)

Human Capital Index (HCI) (scale 0-1)
Pakistan
0.4
(2020)

Economic
Indicator
Most recent value
Trend
GDP (current US$)
current US$
Middle income
35,785.94
High income
59,445.42
Low income
526.28
Pakistan
346.34
(2021 billion)

Pakistan (2021)
346.34 Billion
GDP per capita (current US$)
current US$
Middle income
6,102.0
High income
47,886.8
Low income
749.8
Pakistan
1,537.9
(2021)

High income (2020)
43,282.4
GDP growth (annual %)
Middle income
7.0
High income
5.1
Low income
3.0
Pakistan
6.0
(2021)

Middle income (2002)
4.8
Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) (modeled ILO estimate)
Middle income
6.3
High income
5.7
Low income
6.1
Pakistan
4.4
(2021)

High income (2000)
6.5
Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)
Middle income
4.1
High income
2.5
Low income
7.9
Pakistan
9.5
(2021)

Personal remittances, received (% of GDP)
Middle income
1.6
High income
0.3
Low income
2.7
Pakistan
8.7
(2020)

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