Pakistan Nuclear Power Generation Soared 66% in 2021

Nuclear power plants in Pakistan generated 15,540 GWH of electricity in 2021, a jump of 66% over 2020. Overall, Pakistan's power plants produced 136,572 GWH of power, an increase of 10.6% over 2020, indicating robust economic recovery amid the COVID19 pandemic. 

Pakistan Electric Power Generation. Source: Arif Habib

Hydroelectric dams contributed 37,689 GWH of electricity or 27.6% of the total power generated, making hydropower the biggest contributor to power generated in the country. It is followed by coal (20%), LNG (19%) and nuclear (11.4%). 

Cost Per Unit of Electricity in Pakistan. Source: Arif Habib

Nuclear offers the lowest cost of fuel for electricity (one rupee per KWH) while furnace oil is the most expensive (Rs. 22.2 per KWH). 

Pakistan Electric Power Generation Fuel MiX. Source: Arif Habib

Construction of 1,100 MW nuclear power reactor K2 unit in Karachi was completed by China National Nuclear Corporation in 2019, according to media reports. Fuel is being loaded in a similar reactor unit K3 which will add another 1,100 MW of nuclear power to the grid in 2022. Chinese Hualong One reactors being installed in Pakistan are based on improved Westinghouse AP1000 design which is far safer than Chernobyl and Fukushima plants.  

The biggest and most important source of low-carbon energy in Pakistan is its hydroelectric power plants, followed by nuclear power. Pakistan ranked third in the world by adding nearly 2,500 MW of hydropower in 2018, according to Hydropower Status Report 2019.  China added the most capacity with the installation of 8,540 megawatts, followed by Brazil (3,866 MW), Pakistan (2,487 MW), Turkey (1,085 MW), Angola (668 MW), Tajikistan (605 MW), Ecuador (556 MW), India (535 MW), Norway (419 MW) and Canada (401 MW).

New Installed Hydroelectric Power Capacity in 2018. Source: Hydrowo...

Hydropower now makes up about 28% of the total installed capacity of 33,836 MW as of February, 2019.   WAPDA reports contributing 25.63 billion units of hydroelectricity to the national grid during the year, “despite the fact that water flows in 2018 remained historically low.” This contribution “greatly helped the country in meeting electricity needs and lowering the electricity tariff for the consumers.”

Pakistan's Current Account Balance vs International Oil Prices. Sou...

Recent history shows that Pakistan's current account deficits vary with international oil prices.  Pakistan's trade deficits balloon with rising imported energy prices. One of the keys to managing external account balances lies in reducing the country's dependence on foreign oil and gas. 

Pakistan Power Generation Fuel Mix. Source: Third Pole

It is true that Pakistan has relied on imported fossil fuels to generate electricity. The cost of these expensive imported fuels like furnace oil mainly used by independent power producers (IPPs) has been and continues to be a major contributor to the "exaggerated external demand driven by its rentier economy" referred to by Atif Mian in a recent tweet. However, Pakistan has recently been adding hydronuclear and indigenous coal-fired power plants to gradually reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. 

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Comment by Riaz Haq on January 22, 2022 at 11:04am

Nuclear Power in the World Today(Updated January 2022)

The first commercial nuclear power stations started operation in the 1950s.
Nuclear energy now provides about 10% of the world's electricity from about 440 power reactors.
Nuclear is the world's second largest source of low-carbon power (28% of the total in 2019).
Over 50 countries utilize nuclear energy in about 220 research reactors. In addition to research, these reactors are used for the production of medical and industrial isotopes, as well as for training.


Bangladesh started construction on the first of two planned Russian VVER-1200 reactors in 2017. Construction on the second started in 2018. It plans to have the first unit in operation by 2023. The country currently produces virtually all of its electricity from fossil fuels.China has 53 operable nuclear reactors, with a combined net capacity of 50.8 GWe. In 2020, nuclear generated 4.9% of the country's electricity.The country continues to dominate the market for new nuclear build. At the start of 2022, 18 of the 57 reactors under construction globally were in China. In 2018 China became the first country to commission two new designs – the AP1000 and the EPR. China is commencing export marketing of the Hualong One, a largely indigenous reactor design.The strong impetus for developing new nuclear power in China comes from the need to improve urban air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The government's stated long-term target, as outlined in its Energy Development Strategy Action Plan 2014-2020 is for 58 GWe capacity by 2020, with 30 GWe more under construction.India has 23 operable nuclear reactors, with a combined net capacity of 6.9 GWe. In 2020, nuclear generated 3.3% of the country's electricity.The Indian government is committed to growing its nuclear power capacity as part of its massive infrastructure development programme. The government in 2010 set an ambitious target to have 14.6 GWe nuclear capacity online by 2024. At the start of 2020 seven reactors were under construction in India, with a combined capacity of 5.3 GWe.Japan has 33 operable nuclear reactors, with a combined net capacity of 31.7 GWe. As of June 2021, 10 reactors had been brought back online, with a further 15 in the process of restart approval, following the Fukushima accident in 2011. In the past, 30% of the country's electricity has come from nuclear; in 2020, the figure was just 5.1%.South Korea has 24 operable nuclear reactors, with a combined net capacity of 23.2 GWe. In 2020, nuclear generated 29.6% of the country's electricity.South Korea has four new reactors under construction domestically as well as four in the United Arab Emirates. It plans for two more, after which energy policy is uncertain. It is also involved in intense research on future reactor designs.Pakistan has five operable nuclear reactors, with a combined net capacity of 2.2 GWe. In 2020, nuclear generated 7.1% of the country's electricity. Pakistan has one Chinese Hualong One unit under construction.

Comment by Riaz Haq on January 24, 2022 at 8:04am

Pakistan to burn more domestic coal despite climate pledge
Islamabad expands use of lignite to ease burden of expensive imported fuel

Work on the third phase of the Thar Coal Block II mine expansion is set to begin this year at an estimated cost of $93 million, according to the Sindh Engro Coal Mining Company (SECMC), a public-private enterprise operating the mine since 2019 in the southeastern district of Tharparkar. The second phase of expansion is underway with the help of China Machinery Engineering Corp. and Chinese bank loans, in addition to local financing. The series of expansions will scale up the annual production of lignite from 3.8 million tons to 12.2 million tons by 2023.

The output from the second phase of expansion will feed two 330 MW coal-fired power plants being built under the $50 billion China Pakistan Economic Corridor projects, part of Chinese President Xi Jinping's flagship Belt and Road Initiative. The power plants are expected to come on line this year.

Lignite is brown coal with low calorific value due to high moisture and low carbon content.

The expansion of the Thar coalfields is aimed at curbing coal imports to ease a staggering current-account deficit made worse by soaring international commodity prices and shipping costs. Pakistan's current-account deficit ballooned to an unprecedented $9.09 billion between July and December last year, as imports continued to outstrip exports during the post-COVID economic recovery. Pakistan had to seek a $3 billion loan and a deferred payment facility on the import of petroleum products from Saudi Arabia last year to stabilize forex reserves.

In recent years, high volatility in international oil prices, soaring LNG prices and dwindling local gas reserves have spurred public-private spending, particularly Chinese investment, in Pakistan's coal power sector. Until now, four coal-fired power plants with 4.62 GW of total installed capacity have joined the grid, while another three plants with an aggregate capacity of 1.98 GW are expected to come online over the next two years -- all under CPEC. In addition, growing demand from cement factories banking on a global construction boom has tripled coal consumption over the last five years to 21.5 million tons per annum.

Consequently, the share of coal in Pakistan's import bill for the year ended June 2021 shot to 24% from over 2% in previous years, according to data from the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Currently, only the power plant at Thar Coal Block II is running on indigenous coal.

A spike in coal power generation is in line with global trends, where countries including China, the U.S. and India have turned to coal to meet heightened demand following the lifting of COVID-19 restrictions.


Authorities contend that the expansion of Thar Coal Block II will reduce the price of indigenous coal from $60 to $27 per ton -- making it the country's cheapest power source and leading to annual savings of $420 million. Pakistan is currently importing coal at around $200 per ton.

"We are compelled to use this cheap source of energy because we cannot keep using dollars to run power plants running on expensive furnace oil and RLNG (re-gasified liquefied natural gas)," Sindh Provincial Energy Minister Imtiaz Shaikh told Nikkei Asia. "We would like to mix 20% Thar coal [in power plants running] with imported coal. Then we will move towards converting coal to liquid and coal to gas."

The cost of operating thermal plants has become punishing due to expensive fuel and the cost of diverting scarce freshwater, which leads to underutilization of the plants, said Omar Cheema, director of London-based renewable energy consultancy Vivantive.

Comment by Riaz Haq on January 24, 2022 at 10:21am

Arif Habib Limited
Power Generation up by 10.6% YoY in CY21

Dec’21: 8,828 GWh, +12.0% YoY
CY21: 136,572 GWh, +10.6% YoY

Full Report

Comment by Riaz Haq on January 31, 2022 at 8:06pm

#Pakistan begins extracting #coal from a 2nd major #mine in #Thar, #Sindh. Block 1 mine has lignite coal deposits of over 3 billion tons (5 billions barrels of crude oil) with an annual output of 7.8 million tons to generate 1320 MW #electricity. #energy

Sino-Sindh Resources Ltd (SSRL) said on Monday it successfully extracted the first shovel of lignite coal at Block 1 of the Thar coalfields near Islamkot Town of Tharparkar, Sindh.

Block 1 boasts lignite coal deposits of over three billion tonnes (equivalent to over 5bn barrels of crude oil) with an annual output of 7.8 million tonnes.

SSRL, whose majority shareholder is Shanghai Electric Group, was granted a mining lease on May 24, 2012, and the project was included in the Joint Energy Working Group by the governments of Pakistan and China.

As soon as the two governments officially announced the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, the Thar coal project was included in it as an early-harvest project.


After back-to-back meetings between SSRL and the Energy Department of the government of Sindh, the first excavation took place on Jan 23, 2019, for the development of the largest open-pit coal mine in Block 1.

According to the Thar Coal Energy Board, SSRL and Shanghai Electric Group have already signed a coal supply agreement for power generation through two mine-mouth power plants of 660 megawatt each.

Financial close of the project was achieved on Dec 31, 2019. Soon after the first excavation, the SSRL management started importing mining equipment from China and by July 2020 all the required equipment was at the project site.

Speaking to Dawn, Ministry of Energy spokesperson Muzzammil Aslam said both majority (Shanghai Electric Group) and minority (SSRL) investors in Block 1 are Chinese. Unlike Block 2 where the Sindh government owns a stake of 54.7 per cent, Block I has no direct shareholding by the provincial government, he said.

“Shanghai Electric’s power plant will achieve financial close within this year. It’s a big development because the 1,320MW plant will run on indigenous fuel and produce affordable electricity,” Mr Aslam added.

SSRL officials said the development of the indigenous resource base at Thar will help Pakistan achieve its long-cherished goal of energy security and economic sovereignty.

Comment by Riaz Haq on February 1, 2022 at 10:34pm

Arif Habib Limited
Oil marketing industry sales surged by 18.9% YoY during Jan’22 to 1.80mn tons (7MFY22: 12.91mn tons, +14.5% YoY).


The demand for petroleum oil products remained robust despite the uptrend in prices, as wheat harvesting, power generation through oil-fired plants and building of domestic reserves in anticipation of a further hike in international prices generated strong demand in January.

Besides, healthy industrial activities and growing car numbers on roads also contributed to the rising momentum in sales of petroleum products. Overall oil sales surged almost 20% to 1.8 million tons in January 2022 compared to 1.51 million tons in the previous month of December 2021, Arif Habib Limited (AHL) reported on Tuesday. “(High-speed) diesel had a major increase in demand among petroleum products in the wake of wheat harvesting in the country,” AHL Head of Research Tahir Abbas said while talking to The Express Tribune.

Secondly, three major power plants, located in Punjab, ran on diesel due to the widening gas shortfall during winter months. Besides, some other plants ran on furnace oil and its demand picked up as well. Thirdly, oil marketing companies (OMCs) and their dealers (petrol pumps) built inventories during the month in anticipation of a hike in prices of petroleum products in the global as well as domestic markets.

The building of reserves was aimed at making additional profits on likely increase in prices in the domestic market with effect from February 1, 2022. The government, however, decided to keep oil prices unchanged, which “had earlier been expected to increase by Rs12-15 per litre,” he said. The demand for petrol also remained robust in the backdrop of a significant growth in sales of cars and SUVs.

Car sales slowed down, but still remained significant despite the fact that the government took measures to cut imports of luxury cars and restricted bank financing for cars to control the current account deficit (CAD). Sales of diesel increased 20% to 0.74 million tons in January compared to 0.62 million tons in December.

Sales of petrol rose 6.2% to 0.74 million tons in the month under review compared to 0.70 million tons in the previous month. Sales of furnace oil surged 103% to 0.26 million tons in January compared to 0.13 million tons in December 2021. Cumulatively, in the first seven months (July-January) of the current fiscal year 2021- 22, oil sales increased 14.5% to 12.91 million tons compared to 11.27 million tons in the same period of previous year. The growth in demand is mostly seasonal given that wheat harvesting takes place

Comment by Riaz Haq on February 3, 2022 at 5:24pm

A British investor group CDC & Gul Ahmed Metro (GAM) group JV to add 500MW of #renewable power in #Pakistan with significant minority stake in Metro #Wind Power. CDC and GAM are also co-investors in Zephyr Power Limited, an operating 50MW #windfarm.

The Metro-BII Renewables joint venture aims to add 500 megawatts (MW) low-cost renewable power to Pakistan in the medium term, increasing jobs and expanding economic opportunities
The joint venture will mitigate Pakistan’s carbon emissions, cutting 728,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year for the planet
Investment aligns with CDC’s ambition to invest over £3 billion of climate finance over the next five years
CDC Group (soon to become British International Investment – BII) and Gul Ahmed Metro Group (GAM), are today announcing their partnership to form the Metro-BII Renewables joint venture. The new joint venture builds on the existing partnership between the UK’s development finance institution and GAM, a Pakistani family-owned business with expertise in Pakistan’s power sector, and it will aim to develop and operate up to 500MW of renewable energy assets in Pakistan.

Metro-BII Renewables aims to add up to 500 Megawatts (MW) of primarily greenfield low-cost renewable power to Pakistan’s grid over the medium term, and has a current generation capacity of 110MW. The JV will boost clean power generation, providing electricity to over 850, 000 consumers in Pakistan. Moreover, up to 17,000 jobs will be supported across the country, as a result of the increased power capacity. In addition, Metro-BII Renewables will help the country decarbonise as the joint venture’s target capacity size will help avoid an estimated 728, 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, for the planet.

This new joint venture will strengthen collaboration between CDC, which will be renamed British International Investment (BII) in April, and GAM and foster knowledge sharing from both firms’ experience within the local and regional power sector.

Under the terms of the joint venture, CDC will acquire a significant minority stake in Metro Wind Power Limited (MWPL), an under-construction 60MW windfarm project, developed by GAM, the acquisition remains subject to lender and regulatory approval. CDC and GAM are also co-investors in Zephyr Power Limited, an operating 50MW windfarm.

CDC’s capital will provide much-needed equity finance that will support the development of a clean energy platform that is bespoke to Pakistan’s needs, helping to scale power capacity in the country. The deepened partnership will help accelerate greater investments into the renewable power sector in Pakistan. This partnership further underlines CDC’s focus on the renewable sector in Pakistan, where CDC has made over US $160 million in equity and debt investments, over the past five years.

Comment by Riaz Haq on February 10, 2022 at 10:24am

The test run of two 900MW power plants—Lucky and Thar Energy Ltd—has paved the way for the launch of their commercial operations within a month or so.

With the addition of these plants, the total generation in the southern region corridor will reach 5,530MW. It will further surge to 5,830MW after Jamshoro Power Plant starts commercial operation by end of this year, Dawn has learnt.

According to a letter issued by the National Power Control Centre (System Operations)—a department of the National Transmission and Despatch Company—both the plants are passing through the test run process before commencing commercial operations.

“In the southern region, the commissioning of Lucky Power Plant (600MW) and Thar Energy (300MW) is underway at the moment,” reads the letter.

The plants already in operation in the southern region—1,240MW China Hub, 600MW Engro Thar, 1,250MW Port Qasim, 200MW (Wind Energy plants), 1,040MW K-2 and 300MW Hubco— are cumulatively generating 4,630MW.

“Of the aforementioned generation, a total of 1,500MW is being used by Sindh—500MW by the Hyderabad Electric Supply Company (Hesco) and 1,000MW by the K-Electric. Thus the remaining 3,130MW is currently being evacuated from the plants and transmitted and depatched to north-urban load centres in Punjab,” an NTDC official explained while talking to Dawn on Saturday.

The official, requesting anonymity, said as soon as the generation reached 4000MW, the testing of 660kV Matiari-Lahore High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission line would be carried out on full load/installed capacity of 4000MW.

Answering a question, he said the line is evacuating power from the plants in AC (alternate current) mode, converting it in DC (direct current) through a convertor station at Matiari (near Hyderabad), and supplying it to Punjab in AC mode after converting it at a convertor station, near Lahore.

“Keeping in view the increasing demand, the construction of some more power plants in the southern corridor is also being planned,” he maintained.

Comment by Riaz Haq on February 11, 2022 at 6:36pm

#Nuclear #India: For Clean #Electricity, #Modi Government Plans to Double Down on #Atomic #Energy in 2022. Currently nuclear power capacity in India stands at 6,885 MW. #Coal fuels 70% of #Indian power plants. New nuclear Target: 63,000 MW Nuclear.

Despite a renewed global push for nuclear energy as a relatively cleaner source of electricity generation, the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation in India has remained around 3 to 3.5 per cent since 2014.

Confirming the statistics in the Parliament earlier this week, Union Atomic Energy Minister Dr Jitendra Singh said that the government plans to increase this share by adding more nuclear power capacity in the country.

"The actual commercial generation has increased from 34,162 Million Units in the calendar year 2014 to 43,918 Million Units in the calendar year 2021," Singh said in a written reply to a question in the Lok Sabha.

Consistent underperformance of the nuclear industry in meeting capacity targets has led the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) to refer to capacity targets as aspirational. Currently, in 2022, nuclear power capacity stands at 6,885 MW as opposed to the 63,000MW target.

The Minister said that the share of nuclear power in total electricity generation depends on the production by nuclear power units compared to all other electricity-generating technologies. But the number of nuclear power plants and their capacity has remained well below desired targets over the past few decades.

Despite repeated assurance from the government and experts that nuclear power generation is safe and much cleaner than other means of electricity generation, strong opposition persists for the widespread adoption of this technology across the country. Last month to a question raised by DMK Lok Sabha member T.R.Baalu, Dr Singh said, "India has adopted a 'closed fuel cycle', where spent nuclear fuel is regarded as a material of resource," he said.

"Given the very small quantity of high-level waste generated post reprocessing and technologies for separation, partitioning and burning of waste being developed by the country, there is no need for a deep underground geological disposal facility in the near future," Singh said.

He said that India is pursuing an indigenous three-stage nuclear power programme to provide the country with long-term energy security in a sustainable manner. In addition, Light Water Reactors based on foreign cooperation are also being set up as additionalities.

"An expansion programme for nuclear power is being undertaken to provide the country with clean electricity," Dr Singh added.

The Budget 2022-23 also was in line with the government’s promise to increase the share of nuclear energy. A whopping ₹86,200.65 crores budget has been allocated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy this year in what appears to be an effort to combat carbon emissions. This is more than four times the previous allocation of ₹18,265 crores last year.

On a global level, the European Union is also drawing plans to classify nuclear power as green investments to help Europe cut carbon emissions.

Moreover, this year, the budget allocation has also gone up to ₹6,900.68 crores to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy—a jump of more than a thousand crore rupees. The funding for coal—the unsustainable fossil fuel that meets over 70% of India's electricity needs—has also sharply decreased from ₹933.60 crores in 2019 to ₹393.24 crores in 2022, hinting at a clear resolve to reduce the dependence on it.

Comment by Riaz Haq on February 12, 2022 at 10:11am

2530 MW
At present, a total of 2530 MW of nuclear capacity is installed, comprising six nuclear power plants: KANUPP (originally 137 MW, de-rated to 100 MW), CHASNUPP-1 (325 MW), CHASNUPP-2 (325 MW), CHASNUPP-3 (340 MW), CHASNUPP-4 (340 MW) and KANUPP-2 (1100 MW).


Pakistan plans on constructing 32 nuclear power plants by 2050 and envisions 40,000 MW of nuclear power generation.

Comment by Riaz Haq on February 12, 2022 at 10:12am

61,370 MWe nuclear in France
Since June of 2020, it has 56 operable reactors totalling 61,370 MWe, one under construction (1630 MWe), and 14 shut down or in decommissioning (5,549 MWe). Électricité de France (EDF) – the country's main electricity generation and distribution company – manages the country's 56 power reactors.


France will build at least six new nuclear reactors in the decades to come, President Emmanuel Macron said on Thursday, placing nuclear power at the heart of his country's drive for carbon neutrality by 2050.

Macron said the new plants would be built and operated by state-controlled energy provider EDF (EDF.PA) and that tens of billions of euros in public financing would be mobilized to finance the projects and safeguard EDF's finances.

"What our country needs, and the conditions are there, is the rebirth of France's nuclear industry," Macron said, unveiling his new nuclear strategy in the eastern industrial town of Belfort.

Promising to accelerate the development of solar and offshore wind power Macron also said he wanted to extend the lifespan of older nuclear plants in the world’s most nuclear-intensive country to more than 50 years from more than 40 years currently for certain reactors, provided it was safe.

The announcement comes at a difficult time for debt-laden EDF, which is facing delays and budget over-runs on new nuclear plants in France and Britain, and corrosion problems in some of its ageing reactors.

The nuclear blueprint cements France's commitment to nuclear power, a mainstay of the country's postwar industrial prowess but whose future was uncertain after Macron and his predecessor had promised to reduce its weight in the country's energy mix.


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